Section 4 - 1


Summary of the basics of networking fundamentals, including technologies, devices and protocols

Basics of configuring IP addressing and TCP/IP properties

  • DHCP or Dynamic Host Control Protocolis a network configuration protocol for hosts on IP Networks.
    • DHCP automatically assigns IP Addresses in order for you to be connected the internet (since you need and IP Address attached to your network in order to communicate with other servers).

  • DNS or Domain Name System is a computer server that allows you to get the responses you receive when trying to access a directory or network

Bandwidth and Latency

  • Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be transferred at any given time.
    • I always use the analogy of the High Class hotel.
      • Imagine there is a very classy hotel named 1 MeBits, the hotel can only hold a small amount of occupants at any given time, due to the sizing of the individual rooms. The hotel is just opening and there are only 5 rooms available. 4 of which the rooms are taken by YouTube, Facebook, email and a surfer. YouTube has the biggest room of them all because he stated he needs space for the large parties he hosts. Facebook has the room farthest away from anyone but needs a medium sized room because he says he constantly enters and exits his room. email and the surfer room side by side in small compact rooms. Now, imagine that the party YouTube has, is actually all the data that has to be streamed to you to watch a single video (100 MB of data could be a 15 second YouTube video). Imagine that Facebook constantly entering and exiting his room, is actually how Facebook has to constantly update in order to notify you on updates, comments, replies, etc. Email is just your standard user who checks their email regularly and is not doing much. Considering emails only use large amounts of data when downloading attachments or loading a graphic heavy email. Email gets a small amount of space because it will only use close to about 5000 KB (which is roughly a quarter to 5 MB) for a heavy page. Finally, Imagine The surfer, is actually a basic web surfer (checks email frequently, browses on shopping sites, googles information, etc. Nothing heavy). a basic web surfer and a normal email user will take up the least amount of bandwidth because they generally use small amounts of data. Facebook is a hard one because it seems as though it takes up small amounts of data but, while that is true, since it constantly updates it also takes that same amount of data each and every time it updates. all of this combined you should have guessed that the final available room would have to be the smallest room, due to the uneven amount of usage on the other users parts. this shows that the more demand there is the less space there is for the other users on the same network as you. those 4 people have used up 95% of the available bandwidth on the 1Mbps data connection. this leaves the last person to only have 5% of the network to use, hoping that the other 4 don't decide to do anything more data consuming than they already are. not only does this restrict the 5th person, but also the 3rd and 4th. the larger amount of data is being taken by YouTube and Facebook due to the way they go about using your data. I encourage you to use a Network monitor occasionally, to see just what is taking up all of your data and how much of it. this can help you show the users and yourself why its good to what i like to say "play fair" when using data. you don't want to use and abuse a connection, just because your allowed to, Think of the others on your network.
  • Latency could be best described as how much traffic is being pushed through your network and how long it takes for you to send and receive data from a server. The best way i explain Latency is through the use of Online Video Games use of Ping trackers. What your ping is, is how long it takes your to respond to your hosts ping in ms (milliseconds). for example if you are on a type of network as listed above in my Bandwidth analogy, then you would have a high ping of something like 999 this may seem high, but in theory it is high. Because of the amount of network space that is being taken up, the gamer will likely be room 5 in the hotel getting the blunt side of the stick, meaning that he will Lag everywhere and not be able to even enjoy playing his game anymore. if you are on the network by yourself, depending on how fast your network is you should be in the 50-130 range. When looking at Ping something <50 (Less than 150) would be a network that is clear and very high in speed, something like a 25 Mbps network. But, something >150 (Greater than 150) would be a bad sign, meaning that your network is congested and you will likely not have an enjoyable experience.

Status indicators



Protocols (TCP/IP, NETBIOS)



Full-duplex, half-duplex



Basics of workgroups and domains



Common ports: HTTP, FTP, POP, SMTP, TELNET, HTTPS



LAN / WAN



Hub, switch and router



Identify Virtual Private Networks (VPN)





Basics class identification

IP Classes
IP Classes


  • IP Addresses used to be split into a now obsolete form of organization, in which each octet would signify
how many will host and how much will be used as the network. the very first octet or Class A would be listed as network always, regardless of which class you are, you need to have a network. Class B,C, and D will be chosen
depending on the demand of the network. Example, The first octet by default, is Network. The
server is in need of more hosts today, so the second octet becomes Host. But, the third and fourth octet also become
Host. Another Example, say the third octet is Network, Then since a Host is needed then automatically octet four is going to be Host. To better explain myself, there is a picture to the right which shows exactly what i mean by Host and Network.

IPv6 vs. IPv4

  • Address length differences
    • IPv6 is a 128 bit Hexadecimal address (ex.2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334)
      while IPv4 is a 32 bit address written in dot decimal form, for end user convenience (ex. 192.168.2.1). For visual comparison purposes, i will point out that IPv4 can be recognized by it being split into 4 octets while IPv6 is split into 8.
  • Address conventions