SubSection 1.10 - Install, Configure and Optimize Laptop Components and Features


Expansion Devices

PCMCIA cards



PCMCIA stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. Another name for a PCMCIA is “PC Card” or “CardBus”. A PC Card is a hardware device that was originally designed for computer storage expansion in laptops. Nowadays the CardBuses are no longer used for storage expansion. Overtime many other types of PC cards were made to suit other needs; these devices include: network cards, modems, and hard disks. The cards were used in early digital cameras as well. There are about five types of PC Cards available, but here are the most common:

Type I

  • Original specification
  • 3.3 mm thick and feature a dual row of 34 holes (68 in total) along a short edge as a connecting interface
  • Typically used for memory devices such as RAM, flash memory, OTP (One-Time Programmable), and SRAM cardsqq.jpg

Type II

  • Use two rows of 34 sockets, and feature a 16- or 32-bit interface
  • 5.0 mm thick
  • Introduced I/O (input and output) support, allowing devices to attach an array of peripherals or to provide connectors/slots to interfaces for which the host computer had no built-in support
  • Many modem, network and TV cards use this form factor

Type III

  • 16-bit or 32-bit
  • 10.5 mm thick, allowing them to accommodate devices with components that would not fit type I or type II height




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC_Card









Express bus



An Express Bus is the newer version of the PCI bus. It is also known as the PCI Express Bus. This bus uses a serial bus instead of parallel bus which means that data is transferred one bit at a time, unlike the parallel bus where data is transferred in multiple bits at a time. Express buses are cheaper and have a higher bus speed compared to the PCI buses. Although the Express bus is the same size as a parallel PCI card it is not compatible with it; they have different connectors, signal, voltage levels, and format. PCI-E buses also come with plug and play services which means that you can work with them as soon as you plug them into the computer at whatever moment.

Express buses fit straight into the slots available for them and they connect to the pins in the back of the slot. Before removing them make sure you stop the cards services. You can do this by using the “safley remove hardware” icon on the system tray on the lower right hand of your screen. After that you can press eject on the case to pop the card out of the slot.

















Docking station



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Docking Station

As shown in the photograph to your left, you will see that a docking station is a device on which your notebook computer can be mounted. This device is very beneficial if you want your laptop to have the capabilities of a desktop computer. Docking stations provide slots for full sized desktop PCI cards, additional media or accessory bays, floppy drives, CD drives, and it can also help keep your laptop cool. You could say it is somewhat like a port replicator except that port replicators do not have a platform stand.

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Port Replicator

















Communication Connections




Bluetooth



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Bluetooth Logo

Have you ever been out somewhere walking around and came across a person who looked like they were having a conversation with themselves? They don’t have a cell phone in their hand, and there is no one else around them, but then you notice they have something attached to their ear, and you realize that is what they are speaking into? This person is using one of many Bluetooth devices.

Bluetooth is defined as short distance radio communications technology; it was created by Bluetooth Special Interest Group which includes 1000+ companies. Some of the cheif companies include Siemens, Intel, Motorola, Toshiba, and Ecrisson. Bluetooth was designed to enable devices like cell phones, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), audio players, PC peripherals, and PCs to discover other Bluetooth devices that are within their range. They have a tiny antenna inside that can find other devices that are up to 10 meters away. Once a device is detected they begin configuring and communicating.












Infared



You've seen it on your television remotes, and probably remember using it to connect your old handheld game to someone else’s. That’s right, it’s that download_(1).jpglittle red light on the end of devices like those that unlike most of our wireless connections today, doesn't work whenever you put something in front of it. We call it Infared. Infared is wireless technology that uses pulses of invisible light to transmit signals between devices. It is rather slow, and only works by line of site connections which means that the two devices that are communicating need to be aimed directly at each other for the connection to work. This light cannot pass through obstructions or around corners. The connection speeds range from 9600bps to 4Mbps and its max range is from 10 to 20 feet. Devices that are more than 45 degrees off to the side will be unable to connect.

The most popular form of infared is Infared Serial Data Link technoology. This offers wireless serial connection at 1.5 mbps with a max range of 20 ft. Laptops and PDAs often use ISDL to connect with devices such as wireless mice and keyboards.











Cellular WAN


Cellular WAN is wireless technology that uses cellular equipment to link a handheld PC to the internet or to another network. This reaches speeds of up to 56kbps.




Ethernet



Ethernet is the most popular form of LAN (Local Area Network) in use today; it can be wired or wireless. The major wireless technologies include: Wi-Fi, WiMAX, Cellular WAN, Bluetooth, and 802.11a. The wired connections use cables such as: shielded twisted-pair cable (STP), unshielded twisted pair (UTP), or fiber optic cable nodes to communicate with an access point or wireless hub by using a wireless NIC (Network Interface Card). An Ethernet connection is easy to set up, use, and costs little which is why it’s so popular. Each versions speed and operating conditions dictate what type of connecting wire is being used. The NIC allows the nodes to communicate over relatively short distances by using radio waves which sends it to the nearest hub and receives from the hub.





Modem

Modem stands for MOdulator/DEModulator. Why? Because it communicates by converting digital and analog signals. The sending computer converts digital signals into analog signals that are compatible with the phone system; this part is called modulation. Then the receiving modem converts the analog back into digital; this would be the demodulation process. Modems allow you to connect to the internet through a phone line.

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Power and Electrical Input Devices

Auto-switching

You’re working on your laptop for a while and you notice that your battery is running low. You plug in the charger and you have no more worries about your computer dying because you know it’s running off of power from the wall outlet. The way your laptop kept running when you plugged in the charger is called auto-switching. Auto-switching is the ability to switch between the battery and the AC power supply of a notebook automatically and vice versa. Your computer adjusts to the type of power on its own.

Fixed input power supplies

The long wire that you use to charge your laptop - yes, the one with a box in the middle of the wire - is called a
external image ac-power-adapter.jpgfixed input power supply. The wire is a power cord and the box is called a transformer (or power brick). This wire is also known as an AC adapter. They call it a fixed input power supply because it is used to power your notebook like a power supply powers a computer. The cords come in different lengths depending on the system, and the size and shape of the transformers vary from notebook to notebook as well. If you ever need to purchase another one for any reason make sure you purchase one specifically for your laptop; not all power cords work on just any laptop. 12 volt power adapters that connect to the auxiliary power socket in a vehicle or airplane, or in the cigarette-lighter sockets of older vehicles are available too. You can use them for your notebook when ever you are on the run.

Batteries





Notebooks contain batteries that come in a variety of shapes and sizes and that provide anywhere from 30 minutes to 8 hours of battery power. The batteries are different shapes and sizes because they are designed to fit around other notebook components, so don’t get puzzled if you see one that is a little oddly shaped. Most notebooks have Li-Ion (Lithium Ion) batteries. Older systems still use Ni-Cad (nickel-cadmium) or NiMH (nickel-metal hydride).

Here are some battery types and the specifications:


  • NiCad- Nickel-cadmium batteries have a problem called memory effect. They remember how full they were during the last charge and won't charge past that point.

  • NiMH- Nickel metal-hydride batteries have two to three times the capacity of a similar size NiCad battery. Although they also suffer the memory effect bug, it is not as great as NiCad. THese batteries have a higher self-discharge rate than both NiCad and Li-Ion. They use hydrogen instead of cadmium lead which makes them more environmentally friendly.

  • Li-Ion- Lithium ion batteries are lightweight and have long battery life. Liquid electrolyte is contained within a steel structure of the battery to prevent leakage. An alternative to that is lithium polymer which uses jellied substance rather than liquid for electrolyte material.

  • Zinc Air- Zinc Air is a new technology that uses carbon membrane to absorb oxygen. This also contains a zinc plate and uses potassium hydroxide for the electrolyte. Unfortunately, this type of battery is not rechargeable and needs to be used quickly before the chemical runs out.

  • Fuel cells- Fuel cells are predicted to be popular battery choices in the future. They are still in development but show great potential for notebooks, cars, and many other devices.



Every notebook’s battery drains depending on the type of power plan it is set to. Here are some of them:

  • Balanced- This plan balances energy savings and performance. It is typically used on desktop computers.

  • Power Saver- This plan favors energy over responsiveness. You might have to wait while components power up, or wake your computer more often than you would have to with another plan. This is typically used on notebooks.

  • High Performance- The high performance plan favors performance over energy savings. Fewer components are turned off, so the computer is more responsive. This is typically used with servers and computers that share their resources.









Input Devices










Stylus/digitizer

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Stylus's are those tiny pens you use to interact with devices like PDAs and tablets. With a stylus you can write, select, or navigate on your handheld device. A digitizer the software on the device that converts the touch of the stylus into an image.














Function keys



Have you looked at your laptops keyboard are noticed there is more than one symbol on a key? A common place to find them would be on the numbers of your keyboard. These keys that have more than one symbol are called function keys. Since they have two symbols, that means they serve two purposes. You can enter the first symbol by just touching the key. To operate the second symbol you must first locate the "fn" key on your keyboard. When you find it press and hold that key and then press the key that has the symbol you wish to use and there you go! You've made use of a function key.

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Point devices


Pointing devices are devices you use to navigate through devices with. There are many different pointing devices like trackballs, touch pads, laser pens, styluses, and more. Here are some examples of a few:



  • Trackballs: Trackballs are usually found in old mice used for desktop computers. However they can also be found in old notebooks as well. They are usually located in the center of the notebook's keyboard. It could also be below your spacebar as well or it could also be a peripheral device. To operate it all you have to do is slide your finger along it; that is what you would have used as a mouse. Newer notebook systems don't have trackballs anymore.


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  • Touch pads: Touch pads are located on notebooks. It is the surface below the space bar that has two buttons with it. To operate this all you have to do is slide your finger along the surface and your mouse moves. You can also tap the surface to click or use the buttons to click. The left button is obviously the left click and the right button would be the right click.


external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRKuvveZcGckPxjtOmVlaH_3QysHzQ188g8yzAOiPUIUjQSG07D










  • Handwriting Technology: Handwriting technology is something that manufacturers are trying to incorporate into notebooks. You would use a stylus to write on a pad and the software of the notebook would pick up your handwriting and convert it into typing.












Thank You:


CompTIA A+ Certification Essentials, 2009 Edition


CompTIA A+ Certification: Essentials, 2009 Edition, Revised

www.wikipedia.com





- Created by Priscilla Lugo