Section 1.0 Hardware


SubSection 1.2 - Motherboards
Created by: Charles
Edited by: Charles
---------------JJ
Edited By: Krystal Cruz


Form Factors

  • A form factor is a motherboard's size and shape.
  • Types

Formfactors.gif
Types of Motherboards

    • XT

      • Originated by IBM 1983
      • The successor to the original IBM PC (1st home computer)
      • Maximum size of 8.5 inches by 11 inches
      • xt.jpeg
    • AT

      • Originated by IBM 1984
      • Known as Full AT and popular during the era of the Intel 89386 microprocessor
      • Maximum size of 12 inches by 11-13 inches
      • Superseded by ATX
      • at.jpg
    • Baby-AT

      • Originated by IBM 1985
      • Successor to the AT motherboard
      • Became popular due to its significantly smaller size
      • Maximum size of 8.5 inches b 10-13 inches
      • Baby_AT.jpg
    • ATX

      • Originated by IBM 1996
      • Created in 1995
      • Most popular form factor for commodity motherboards as of 2007
      • Maximum size of 12 inches by 9.6 inches
      • ATX-Motherboard.jpg
    • Micro-ATX

      • Created in 1996
      • 25 percent shorter then the ATX form factor
      • Compatible to most ATX cases
      • Has fewer slots than ATX
      • Very popular for desktop and small form factor computers as of 2007
      • MicroATX.jpg
    • Mini-ATX

      • Originated by AOpen 2005
      • Slightly smaller than Micro-ITX
      • mini_atx.jpg
    • LPX

      • Based on a design by Western Digital
      • Allowed to be used in smaller cases
      • Puts the expansion card slots on a Riser Card
      • Used in slimline retail PCs
      • Maximum size of 9 inches by 11-13 inches
      • lpx.jpeg
    • Mini-LPX

      • Designed for slimline PCs
      • Maximum size of 8-9 inches by 10-11 inches
      • mini_lpx.jpg
    • NLX

      • Low-profile design released in 1997
      • Created in Intel 1999
      • Incorporated a riser for expansion cards for add-on adapters
      • Never became popular
      • Maximum size of 8-9 inches by 10-13.6 inches
      • nlx.jpg
    • FlexATX

      • Created in Intel 1999
      • Subset of MicroATX
      • Allows more flexible motherboard design, component positioning and shape
      • Can be smaller than a regular MicroATX
      • Maximum size of 9 inches by 7.5 inches
      • flexATX.jpg
    • Mini-ITX

      • Created by VIA 2001
      • Small, highly-integrated form factor
      • Designed for small devices such as thin clients and set-top boxes.
      • Maximum size of 6.7 inches by 6.7 inches
      • mini_itx.jpg
    • Nano-ITX

      • Created by VIA 2003
      • Targeted at smart digital entertainment devices
      • Maximum size of 4.7 inches by 4.7 inches
      • nano_itx.jpg
    • BTX

      • Created by Intel 2004
      • Standard proposed by Intel as a successor to ATX
      • The layout has better cooling
      • Flipped in comparison to ATX Boards
      • Needs a BTX case
      • RAM slots and the PCI slots are parallel to each other
      • Processor is placed closer to the fan
      • May contain a CNR board
      • btx.jpg
    • MicroBTX

      • Has different dimensions
      • Shares the electrical and component design with the BTX form factor

      • Maximum size of 10.4 inches by 10.5 inches
      • microbtx.jpg
    • PicoBTX

      • Meant to miniaturize the BTX standard
      • Relatively small (10.5 inches by 8 inches)
      • Named "Pico" because it is the smallest of many current micro-sized motherboards
      • Support only one or two expansion slots
      • Designed for half-height or riser-card applications
      • picobtx.jpg

I/O Interfaces

  • The communication between an information processing system (a computer) and the outside world (a human or other processing systems)
  • Types

    • Sound


      Sound_Card.jpg
      Sound Card
      • To output music in addition to the various beeps and other tones
      • Sound cards must convert digital data into analog sound waves
    • Video

      • Convert computer data to the signals required to produce the images that you see on your screen
      • Video adapters create the signals necessary to display full-color and full-motion images and video
    • USB 1.1

      • Limited data transfer to 12Mbps (megabits per second)
      • Used by devices that don't need high-speed data transfers provided by the 2.0 specification
      • Half-duplex- it can upload and download but not at the same time
    • USB 2.0

      • Backward-compatibly with USB 1.1
      • Can connect USB 1.1 devices to the USB 2.0 bus
        • It would operate at USB 1.1 speeds
        • The entire bus will slow to USB 1.1 speeds
      • Half-duplex
      • usbport.jpg
    • USB 3.0

      • SuperSpeed USB
      • Compatible with USB 2.0 ports
      • Only USB 3.0 connectors function in USB 3.0 ports
      • Improved power management- devices can move into idle, suspend, and sleep states
      • Full-duplex- it can upload and download simultaneously (can do it at one time)
      • In the picture below you can see the physical difference between USB 2.0 and USB 3.0
      • usb3.jpg
    • Serial

      • Serial transmission is a technique in which bits of data are sent, one at a time, across the transmission medium
        • Example
          • The bits are marching single-file down a single data transmission wire
      • Serial ports are the connectors into which you plug devices that use serial transmission to communicate with your PC
      • Serial Connectors
        • PC serial connectors are either 9-pin or 25-pin connectors
        • 2 types of connectors called genders
          • Male connectors- have pins
            • Used on the computer
          • Female connectors- have sockets
            • Used on the devices
          • To connect a serial device, you need a cable with a male connector on one end and a female connector on the other end
      • Serial data is sent one bit at a time over a single wire
      • Serial cables use multiple wires
        • 2 wires are required
          1. One for sending
          2. One for receiving
        • Other pins provide power, ground and control signal transimission
        • Serial Cables come in two forms:
          1. Straight-through - connect your PC to a serial device
            • In a straight-through cable, the corresponding pins at each end of the cable are connected
          2. Null modem - to connect 2 PC as if each were connected to a modem
            • In a null modem cable, pins at one end of the cable are connected to specific pins at the other end to simulate the presence of a modem between two devices
        • Below are pictures of male (left) and female (right) serial ports.
      • Serial_port_male.jpg
    • serial_port_female.jpg

    • Parallel

      • A technique by which a byte(8 bits) is transmitted simultaneously, with each bit in the byte traveling over its own path in the transmission medium.
      • Parallel ports are the connectors into which you plug devices that use parallel transmission to communicate with your PC
        • When people talk about parallel ports, they're referring to the ports for printers
      • parallel.jpg
    • IEEE 1394/FireWire
      fw96.jpg
      FireWire Connectors

      • A high-speed peripheral interconnection bus
      • FireWire offers:
        • Hot-swapping and self-configuration(configure itself) - The bus and its devices are hot-swappable and self-configuring
        • Multiple-device support- you can connect up to devices to the FireWire bus and interconnect up to 1023 of these buses in a tree topology
        • High-speed data transfer- FireWire supports transfer rates of 800 megabits per second
        • Asynchronous and Isochronous transfer modes- FireWire supports devices that require time-critical transfers on the bus
    • NIC Card


      Network_Card.jpg
      NIC Card

      • Network board or network adapter that provides a communication channel between your computer's motherboard and the network
      • It sends information to and receives information from the system bus in parallel, and sends information to and receives information from the network in series
      • It also converts the data that it receives from the system into a signal that's appropriate to the network
      • The NIC Card is an adapter card that plugs into one of the expansion slots that all PCs have on their motherboards or attaches to the computer through an external port like a USB or FireWire port
    • Modem

      • Devices that enables you to connect your computer to another computer through a phone line
      • Modem.jpg
        Modem
        The modem in the sending computer must convert the digital signals within the computer to analog signals that are compatible with the phone system
        • Modulate
          • The modem converts a digital signal into an analog signal
        • Demodulate
          • The process by which the modem electronically subtracts the carrier analog wave, revealing the digital signal it carries
    • PS/2
      ps-2-mouse-port.jpg
      Top: Mouse Port Bottom: Keyboard Port

      • Mouse Port

        • On the back of the Computer
        • A round, six-pin mini-DIN port
        • Typically green or surrounded by a green label
      • Keyboard Port

        • On the back of the Computer
        • A round, six-pin mini-DIN port
        • Typically purple or surrounded by a purple label

Memory Slots

  • SIMM

    • (Single In-line Memory Module)
    • Two types of pins:
      SIMM.jpg
      Top: 30 Pin SIMM, Bottom: 72 Pin SIMM
      • 30 Pins

        • Used in 386-class Desktops, early Macintosh Computers
        • Notch on one end ensures that you insert this module in the correct orientation
        • About 3.5 inches long by 5/8 inches high
      • 78 Pins

        • Used in 486-class Desktops, and early Pentium Desktops
        • A notch in the middle and another notch at one end to ensure that you insert this module in the correct orientation
  • RIMM

    • RIMM is not used as an acronym for "Rambus In-line Memory Module"
    • Used with RDRAM chips and trademarked by Rambus
    • Has 184 edge connectors pads with 1mm pad spacing
    • Used in Intel Pentium 3 Xeon and Pentium 4 systems
      RIMM.jpg
      RIMM
  • DIMM

    • Name short for "Dual In-line Memory Module"
    • Mounted on a printed circuit board
    • Designed for use in Personal Computers, Workstations and Servers
    • Replaced SIMMs as the predominant type of memory module as Intel P5-based Pentium processors began to gain value
    • Types of DIMMs:
      • 100-Pin DIMM (Picture)
        • Used for Printers
        • 50 Pins on the front and 50 Pins on the back
        • 2 Notches: One centered and one off-centered
        • About 3.5 inches by 1.25 inches
      • 168-Pin DIMM (Picture)
        • Used for Pentium and Athlon Systems
        • 84 Pins on the front and 84 Pins on the back
        • 2 Notches: One centered and one off-centered
        • About 5.25 inches by 1 inch
      • 184-Pin DIMM (Picture)
        • Used in DDR SDRAM in Desktops
        • 92 Pins on the front and 92 Pins on the back
        • 2 Notches: One centered and one off-center
        • About 5.25 inches by 1 inch
      • 240-Pin DIMM (Picture)
        • Used in DDR2 SDRAM in Desktops
        • Supports 64-bit memory and processors
        • 120 Pins on the front and 120 Pins on the back
        • 2 Notches: One centered and one off-center
        • About 5.25 inches by 1.18 inches
      • 240-Pin DIMM (Picture)
        • Used in DDR3 SDRAM in Desktops
        • Uses JEDEC standard fly-by technology
          • Signals are routed to each component in serial-like fashion, and times to memory devices are skewed
        • 120 Pins on the front and 120 Pins on the back
        • About 5.25 inches by 1.18 inches
          • But heights of the cards could vary
      • dimm.jpg
  • SODIMM

    • Name for "Small Outline Dual In-Line Memory Module"
    • SODIMMs are often used in systems which have space restrictions such as
      • Notebooks
      • Small Footprint PCs
      • High-end upgradable office printers
      • Networking Hardware like Routers
    • Types:
      • 144-Pin SODIMM (Picture)
        • Used in Laptop and Notebook computers
        • 72 Front pins and 72 Back pins
        • One off-center notch to ensure installation
        • About 2.625 inches by 1 inch
      • 200-Pin SODIMM(DDR Memory) (Picture)
        • Used for Laptops and Notebooks
        • 100 Front Pins and 100 Back Pins
        • One off-center notch to ensure installation
        • About 2.625 inches by 1 inch
      • 200-Pin SODIMM(DDR2 Memory) (Picture)
        • Used for Laptops and Notebooks
        • 100 Front Pins and 100 Back Pins
        • One off-center notch to ensure installation
        • About 2.625 inches by 1 inch
      • 204-Pin SODIMM(DDR3 Memory) (Picture)
        • Used for Laptops and Notebooks
        • 102 Front Pins and 102 Back Pins
        • About 2.6 inches by 1.75 inches(Heights could vary slightly)

sodimm.jpg



Processor Sockets

  • Processor Sockets hold CPU packages onto the motherboards
  • Types:
    • Slot A

      • Supports AMD's Card Module Package
      • Has a AMD Athlon Processor
      • Wasn't a popular design and didn't last long on the market
      • slot_a.jpg
    • Socket A

      • Also called Socket 462
      • Supports SPGA with 462 pins
      • Has a AMD Athlon and Duron Processor
      • Eleven holes in the socket to ensure that packages were installed correctly
      • socket_a.jpg
    • Socket 5

      • Supports PGA, SPGA with 320 pins
      • Has a Pentium Processor
      • Consists of 320 Pins
      • 1st socket to use a staggered pin grid array (SPGA)
        • Allowed the chip's pins to be spaced closer together
      • socket_5.jpg
    • Socket 7

      • Supports
        • PGA and SPGA with 321 Pins
        • PGA, SPGA, and FC-PGA with 296 Pins
      • Has AMD K5 and K6, Cyrix 6x86, Pentium, and Pentium MMX Processors
      • 1st socket to support dual voltage inputs
        • Supports the various core and I/O voltages introduced with the Pentium MMX processors
      • Socket 7 has one more hole than Socket 5
        • Isn't electrically connected
        • Prevents a new CPU from being plugged into a Socket 5 socket
      • socket_7.jpg
    • Socket 8

      • Supports 387 Pin PGA, SPGA, and FC-PGA
      • Uses a Pentium Pro Processor
      • Short-lived socket design
      • A unique rectangular socket with 387 Pins
      • Supports speeds from 60 to 66 MHz
      • Unique pin arrangement
        • One part has pins in a PGA grid
        • One part has pins in a SPGA grid
      • socket_8.jpg
    • Socket 423

      • Supports 423-Pin SPGA, and FC-PGA, OOI
      • Uses a Pentium 4 Processor
      • Short-Lived socket design
      • Became apparent because its electical design proved inadequate for raising clock speed beyond 2.0 GHz
      • Used this socket for less than a year
        • Nov. 2000-Aug. 2001
      • Socket423.png
    • Socket 478

      • Supports FC-PGA2
      • Uses Celeron, Pentium 4, Pentium D, and Pentium Extreme Edition
      • Current general-purpose socket for Pentium-class processors
      • Socket_478.jpg
    • Socket 370

      • Supports SPGA and PPGA with 370 Pins
      • Uses Celeron, Celeron 2, and Pentium 3 Processors
      • Similar to the Socket 7 design, but has six staggered rows of pins instead of five
      • Socket_370.JPG
    • Slot 1

      • Supports SECC, SECC2, and SEP with 242 Pins
      • Uses Pentium 2, early Celeron, and Pentium 3 Processors
      • Has an edge connector slot developed specifically for the three packages it supports
      • CPU can communicate with the Level 2 cache at half CPU speed
      • Slot_1.jpg
    • Slot 2

      • Supports SECC, SECC2, and SEP with 330 contacts
      • Uses Pentium 2 and Xeon Processors
      • The CPU can communicate with the Level 2 cache at full CPU speed
      • Slot2.jpg
    • LGA775

      • Also called Socket T
      • Supports LGA Package
      • Uses Celeron D, Pentium 4, Pentium D, Pentium Extreme Edition, Core2 Duo, and Core2 Duo Extreme Processors
      • Designed to work specifically with the new high-density LGA package
      • This is Intel's current high-end socket
      • lga775.jpg

Bus Architecture

  • Bus- a communication pathway
  • A PC has multiple buses to enable communication between the various components of the PC
  • A bus is defined by various characteristics:
    • How many bits it can transmit at one time
    • How fast data can be transferred
  • Bus Types:

    • Address Bus

      • Transmits memory addresses between the CPU and RAM
      • It lets the processor or DMA-enabled devices to read or write to a memory location on the data bus
    • Data Bus

      • Transfers data between the CPU and RAM
      • Allows for the transferring of data from one component to another on a motherboard or system board, or between two computers
    • Expansion Bus

      • Add-on adapter cards are connected in order to enhance the functionality of the PC
      • The communications pathway over which non-core components of your computer interact with the CPU, memory, and other core components

      • Types:

        • PCI is the predominant type of expansion bus
        • Others like ISA, EISA, Micro Channel, and PC Bus are rarely found today
          • Unless you're working on an older computer
    • Video Bus

      • Transmits display information between the CPU and the video circuitry
      • Generates the signals sent to your monitor
      • Can be built into your motherboard or can be an adapter card added to your system later
      • Video generation requires an enormous amount of data to be transmitted in your PC in very short intervals
      • The demands of graphical operating systems, 3B game graphics, high-resolution digital photos, and digital video can strain the capabilities of the expansion bus
        • Graphics buses- computer designers developed this specialized buses to help with these capacities
    • Riser Bus

      • A circuit board that connects to a motherboard to provide additional expansion slots or sockets
      • PC manufacturers use riser buses to bring the basic wiring and control of a function to a motherboard without using the PCI interface
      • Three Main Riser Standards:

        • Advanced Communication Riser (ACR)
          • The latest riser version
          • Used to provide modem, LAN, xDSL, and audio support
          • Is backwards-compatible with AMR
        • Audio/Modem Riser(AMR)
          • Used to provide both audio and modem support
          • Provides both audio and modem support
        • Communication and Networking Riser(CNR)
          • Used to provide audio, modem, and LAN interfaces
          • Doesn't support an expansion slot
          • Uses an OEM built-in board, including the motherboard CNR connector

Bus Slots
pc_slots.gif
Bus Slots

  • PCI

    • Short for Peripheral Component Interconnect
    • Developed by Intel Corporation and introduced in 1992
    • Supports bus speeds of either 33MHz or 66 MHz
    • Supports 32-bit and 64-bit bus designs
      • In a 32-bit implementation at 33 MHz, the PCI bus supports a peak transfer rate of 133 MBps
      • In a 64-bit implementation at 66 MHz, the PCI bus supports a peak transfer rate of 533 MBps
    • PCI slots are always white
    • PCI slots are shorter (in length) and taller than ISA ports
  • AGP

    • Developed by Intel in 1997 to improve video bus performance
    • Coincided with the release of the Pentium 2 chipsets from Intel
    • Since the first release, newer AGP standards have been released:
      • AGP 1.0
      • AGP 2.0
      • AGP 3.0
      • 64-bit AGP
      • Ultra-AGP
      • AGP Pro
      • Ultra-AGP2
    • AGP is technically not a bus standard
      • It's a port standard
      • Buses support multiple devices, but AGP provides a direct connection between the video adapter and the CPU
  • PCIe

    • Designed to replace AGP video cards in new systems
    • Motherboards that support PCIe video cards became available in 2004
    • The high transfer speeds make this technology an ideal solution for multimedia applications, such as gaming, photography, and videography
    • Card fits into a 163-pin slot on motherboards equipped with PCIe
  • AMR

  • CNR

  • PCMCIA


PATA

  • IDE

    • Introduced in the Mid-1980s and standardized by ANSI in 1994
    • Official known as the AT Attachment or ATA interface
    • Currently the most popular drive interface for Windows-based PCs
  • EIDE

    • Extension to the IDE interface
    • Supports the ATA-2 and ATAPI standards
    • Since mid-1994, PCs have shipped with EIDE interfaces
    • Most motherboards provide a primary and secondary channel for a total of four devices

SATA, eSata

  • SATA

    • A serial bus implementation of an ATA-style interface
    • Transfer rate of 150-300 MBps
    • Many enhancements, including:
      • A dual cable arrangement
      • Dedicated connections to each device
  • eSATA

    • External SATA
    • Version of SATA designed for connecting external SATA devices
    • It's faster than USB and FireWire
    • Has a shorter maximum cable length than USB and FireWire
      • 2 Meters

Contrast RAID

  • Six Basic RAID levels:
    • RAID Level 0

      • Striping with no other redundancy featuring
        • Striping works by spreading data equally over 2 or more devices
        • It is used to extend disk life and to improve performance
        • Data access on striped volumes is fast because of the way the data is divided into blocks that are quickly accessed through multiple disk reads and data paths
      • The disadvantage is that if one disk fails, you can expect a large data loss on all volumes
    • RAID Level 1

      • Simple disk mirroring
        • Provides a means to duplicate the operating system files if a disk fails
        • Prevents data loss by duplicating data from a main disk to a backup disk
      • Disk Duplexing
        • Similar to disk mirroring, but to provide greater redundancy, the backup disk is placed on a different controller or adapter than the one used by the main disk
      • Some administrators consider disk mirroring/duplexing to offer one of the best guarantees of data recovery when there is a disk failure
    • RAID Level 2

      • An array of disks in which the data is striped across all disks in the array
      • Also, all disks store error correction information that enables the array to reconstruct data from a failed disk
      • The advantages of level 1 are that disk wear is reduced and data can be reconstructed if a disk fails
    • RAID Level 3

      • Uses disk striping and stores error correcting information but writes the information to only one disk in the array
      • If that disk fails, the array cannot rebuild its contents
    • RAID Level 4

      • Stripes data and stores error correcting information on all drives
      • Added feature is its ability to perform checksum verification
        • Checksum is a sum of bits in a file
      • When a file is re-created after a disk failure, the checksum previously stored for that file is checked against the actual file after it is reconstructed
    • RAID Level 5

      • Combines the best features of RAID:
        • Striping
        • Error correction
        • Checksum Data
      • Uses more memory than other RAID levels, with at least 16MB recommended as additional memory for system functions
      • Requires at least three disks in the RAID array
      • Recovery from a failed disk provides roughly the same guarantee as with disk mirroring, but takes longer with Level 5
      • System can recover from a single disk failure, but if more than one drive in the array fails, all data is lost and must be restored from backup

Chipsets

  • One or more chips, packaged into a single unit and sold together, that perform a set of functions in a computer
  • Core features of a computer:
    • Memory Control
    • System Bus Functions
    • Audio Functions
    • Video Display Functions
    • System Management Functions
  • Chipset doesn't include the CPU
    • Each chipset is designed to support a select few CPUs
      • The chipset combines what used to be separate video chips into a single chip or unit
  • Northbridge/Southbridge
    Northbridge_&_Southbridge.png
    NorthBridge/Southbridge

    • Northbridge

      • Controls interactions between the CPU, memory, AGP video control circuitry, and the Southbridge
    • Southbridge

      • Controls interactions between buses and devices not controlled by the Northbridge, including:
        • The standard PCI expansion bus
        • Floppy drive controller
        • Serial and Parallel
        • PS/2 Keyboard and Mouse Ports

BIOS/CMOS/Firmware

  • BIOS

    • Short for Basic Input/Output System
    • The computer's firmware
      • A set of software instructions stored on a chip on the motherboard

      • BIOS instructions enable basic computer functions, such as:
        • Getting input from the keyboard and mouse, and serial ports
    • Typical BIOS configuration settings:
      • Date and Time
      • CPU options
      • Optical Drive Options
      • Floppy Drive Options
      • Hard Drive Options
      • Serial Port Options
      • Parallel Port Options
      • Integrated Devices
      • Plug and Play
      • Power Management Options
      • Virus Detection
      • Boot Password
  • POST

    • Name short for Power-On Self Test
    • A program contained in the BIOS that performs a series of basic checks to make sure your system components are in proper working order
    • Four basic parts of the POST that is carried out:
      • The BIOS tests the
        • Core hardware, including:
          • Itself, the processor
          • CMOS
          • The input/output system, and so forth
      • The BIOS tests the video subsystem
        • Checking the memory dedicated to video operations
        • Checking the video processing circuitry
        • Checking the video configuration
      • The BIOS identifies itself, including its version, manufacturer, and data
      • The BIOS tests main system memory
        • BIOS versions display a running count of how much memory has been tested
    • Beep Codes

      • Before the video system is initialized, the BIOS has no way to display errors on your screen
      • Errors detected early in the POST test must be reported as one or more beeps played through the internal PC speaker
      • List of different Beep Codes
  • CMOS

    • Name short for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
    • An area of memory that stores BIOS configuration information
    • A battery, typically on the motherboard, provides power to the CMOS chip so that its contents are maintained when the computer is turned off or unplugged
    • A type of computer chip,
      • Can maintain information without a supply of power
      • The most common use of CMOS chips is to store BIOS configuration data
  • CMOS Batteryexternal image remove-battery.jpg

    • All personal computers require a small battery on the system board that provides power on the CMOS chip
      • Even while the computer is turned off
    • The CMOS battery allows the CMOS to preserve the settings that it configures
  • Firmware

    • Firmware straddles a gray area between hardware and software
    • Firmware is software written permanently or semi-permanently on a computer chip
    • Firmware is used to control electronic devices, like remote controls, calculators, and digital cameras
    • Firmware is implemented using the BIOS and CMOS

Riser Card/ Daughter Board

  • Riser Card
    Riser Card
    Riser Card

    • A circuit board that connects to a motherboard
    • The purpose of the riser card is to provide additional expansion slots or sockets
    • Most often used with special, small motherboards designed for small cases
  • Daughter Board

    • Is a circuit board that connects to a circuit board to provide or assist with its functions
    • Used with video cards to add more video-processing capabilities
    • ==
Daughter Board
Daughter Board
==